May 20, 2002
Book Review: Corporate Irresponsibility
by Willliam Baue
George Washington University law professor and corporate governance expert blames immoral corporate
behavior on imperative to maximize stockholder profit.
"Maximize stockholder profit." Professor Lawrence Mitchell repeats this mantra incessantly at the
outset of his new book Corporate Irresponsibility: America's Newest Export to remind readers what he is
arguing against. He even coins a term, "short-termism," to describe the current obsession for
immediate economic gratification at the expense of long-term returns, both financial and
non-financial. However, the book is less a diatribe than a carefully crafted history of the legal,
philosophical, and psychological underpinnings of our current corporate theory, which he predicts
to be unsustainable.
"Simply put, I will argue that the main problem with American
corporations--the main cause of their irresponsibility--is their drive to maximize short-term stock
prices, a result that no thoughtful person really wants," writes Professor Mitchell in the
Introduction. "The root of the problem is the corporate structure itself: the corporation's legal
structure encourages managers to aim for exactly this short-term result, and it does so by
constraining their freedom to act responsibly and morally: the result is immoral behavior."
The author admits the difficulty of defining corporate irresponsibility, so he provides several
examples of it in practice. One of those examples is Unocal's engagement of slave labor in Burma,
which he returns to throughout the text to illustrate his points. He distills the development of
corporate irresponsibility into a concise historical treatise, tracing its origins back to American
liberalism (the philosophy, not the political leaning.) By explaining the history of corporate
irresponsibility, he identifies the phenomenon as a systemic one in need of a systemic response.
Although Professor Mitchell recognizes that the dynamics that create corporate
irresponsibility and short-termism are embedded in the structure of corporate law, his solutions
are more normative than legal. "Let's attempt to shift corporate behavior before changing
corporate law," he suggests. He invokes Piaget's developmental psychology to posit that the legal
treatment of corporations as individuals with limited liability but without ethical accountability
stunts their moral growth. In essence, humans have written laws that prevent corporations from
exiting self-centered adolescence, he argues.
The main problem, according to Professor
Mitchell, is our schizophrenic definition of corporations. On the one hand, our laws treat
corporations as individuals with rights, but on the other hand, it absolves corporate actors of
responsibility for their actions. This structure encourages immoral behavior by managers and
directors who might conduct themselves morally outside of their corporate life, because our system
forces individuals to be accountable for their actions. The author highlights the irony that our
laws and business structure absolve the very entities most capable of wreaking damage--large
corporations--of all responsibility.
The conclusion of Professor Mitchell's argument
sounds exceedingly patriotic: we must liberate corporate actors from the shackles of the imperative
to maximize shareowner profit. However, this solution is not without risk. It assumes that basic
human morality will apply to the corporate setting as well. In many ways, this is proposal much
more ambitious than a legal solution, which would impose strictures on managers and directors to
coerce behavior defined as moral by the state. Professor Mitchell's solution instead challenges us
to have faith that humans will conduct themselves ethically if given the freedom to do so.
Buy this book at Amazon.com
Corporate Irresponsibility: America's Newest
Export by Lawrence E. Mitchell. Yale University Press, 2002.