December 02, 2012
Global Emissions Continue to Rise
by Robert Kropp
Carbon dioxide emissions reached a record high in 2011, a record which will be broken in 2012, and
a report commissioned by the World Bank warns that adapting to a 4°C increase is by no means
Climate Change Conference is underway in Qatar. "A faster response to climate change is
necessary and possible," Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC), said before negotiations opened last week. "Doha must make sure the
response is accelerated."
But expectations for meaningful action by governments are
low, "with no new emissions targets and little progress expected on a protocol that is supposed to
be concluded in 2015 and take effect in 2020," The New York Times reported today.
"We won't get an international
agreement until enough domestic legislation and action are in place to begin to have an effect,"
Figueres said. "Governments have to find ways in which action on the ground can be accelerated and
taken to a higher level."
As governments continue to fail to act on climate change,
researchers associated with the Global Carbon Project (GCP) reported today that
global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rose three percent in 2011 to a record 9.5 billion metric
tons, and are expected to increase by another 2.6% in 2012. While per capita emissions in the US
are more than twice as high as anywhere else, overall emissions in China and India have increased
most rapidly as economic growth in those nations is being fueled by coal.
As a result, the
goal of limiting global temperature increases to an average of two degrees Celsius seems unlikely,
although climate negotiations at the 2009 conference in Copenhagen led to a non-binding agreement
among nations to do so. In fact, the GCP report warns that the current trajectory could lead to
temperature increases as high as five degrees Celsius by the end of the century.
report commissioned by the World Bank paints a dire portrait of the fate of humanity should temperature
increases of four degrees Celsius occur. Entitled Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be
Avoided, the report warns, "Without further commitments and action to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions, the world is likely to warm by more than 3°C above the preindustrial climate. Even with
the current mitigation commitments and pledges fully implemented, there is roughly a 20 percent
likelihood of exceeding 4°C by 2100."
"The science is unequivocal that humans are the
cause of global warming," the report asserts, and then proceeds to describe a world in which a 4°C
temperature increase occurs:
• Extreme heat waves, that without global warming would be
expected to occur once in several hundred years, will be experienced during almost all summer
months in many regions. The effects would not be evenly distributed. The largest warming would be
expected to occur over land and range from 4° C to 10° C. Increases of 6° C or more in average
monthly summer temperatures would be expected in the Mediterranean, North Africa, Middle East and
parts of the United States.
• Sea level-rise by 0.5 to 1 meter by 2100 is likely, with higher
levels also possible. Some of the most highly vulnerable cities are located in Mozambique,
Madagascar, Mexico, Venezuela, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam.
The most vulnerable regions are in the tropics, sub-tropics and towards the poles, where multiple
impacts are likely to come together.
• Agriculture, water resources, human health,
biodiversity and ecosystem services are likely to be severely impacted. This could lead to
large-scale displacement of populations and consequences for human security and economic and trade
Many small islands may not be able to sustain their populations, the report
"There is also no certainty that adaptation to a 4°C world is possible," the
report continues. "It is likely that the poor will suffer most and the global community could
become more fractured, and unequal than today."
"The heat must be turned down. Only early,
cooperative, international actions can make that happen."
Among the initiatives that could
help avoid such a scenario are ending fossil fuel subsidies that, according to the World Bank,
exceed $1 trillion; introducing natural capital accounting to supplement or even replace Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) as a measure of national well-being; enacting a meaningful price on carbon;
and increasing public and private investment in green infrastructure.